Five widely used metrics of bioaccumulation in fish are defined and discussed, namely the octanol–water partition coefficient (KOW), bioconcentration factor (BCF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biomagnification factor (BMF), and trophic magnification factor (TMF). Algebraic relationships between these metrics are developed and discussed using conventional expressions for chemical uptake from water and food and first-order losses by respiration, egestion, biotransformation, and growth dilution. Two kod rabatowy waplog BCFs ely as an equilibrium partition coefficient KFW or as a nonequilibrium BCFK in which egestion losses are included. Bioaccumulation factors are shown to be the product of the BCFK and a ely, the diet-to-water concentration ratio and the ratio of uptake rate constants for respiration and dietary uptake. Biomagnification factors are shown to be proportional to the lipid-normalized ratio of the predator/prey values of BCFK and the ratio of the equilibrium multipliers. Relationships with TMFs are also discussed. The effects of chemical hydrophobicity, biotransformation, and growth are evaluated by applying the relationships to a range of illustrative chemicals of varying KOW in a linear 4-trophic-level food web with typical values for uptake and loss rate constants. The roles of respiratory and dietary intakes are demonstrated, and even slow rates of biotransformation and growth can significantly affect bioaccumulation. The BCFKs and the values of M can be regarded as the fundamental determinants of bioaccumulation and biomagnification in aquatic food webs. Analyzing data from food webs can be enhanced by plotting logarithmic lipid-normalized concentrations or fugacities as a linear function of trophic level to deduce TMFs. Implications for determining bioaccumulation by laboratory tests for regulatory purposes are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;–1466. © 2013 SETAC
Bioaccumulation out of all-natural toxins in seafood or any other organisms which can compensate dining chains is a problem because of each other you are able to bad effects to the bacteria on their own and the possibility connection with predators, as well as individuals, that eat such organisms. The main focus the following is into bioaccumulation for the fish, however, similar prices apply to bioaccumulation various other marine liquids-respiration organisms, and so they will get connect with sky-breathing organisms like birds and you will animals. Thus, a global initiative might have been introduced to test industrial chemical substances for the capability to bioaccumulate 1, dos . Within which step, distinct bioaccumulation data and you will metrics are used to influence if or not and to exactly what the amount agents is actually bioaccumulative. Thorough literary works is available with the bioaccumulation from medical and regulatory views, examples as being the reviews because of the Barber 3, 4 , Mackay and you can Fraser 5 , Arnot and Gobas 6 , Ehrlich et al. eight , Burkhard mais aussi al. 8 , and you will Gobas mais aussi al. nine , the latter summarizing the newest conclusions from an excellent SETAC-backed workshop held during the 2008. Such or other recommendations has mentioned the current presence of several metrics from bioaccumulation you to differ for the definition, within the regulatory software, as well as in use by medical neighborhood.
The objective is to help you define and you can talk about the matchmaking anywhere between 5 common bioaccumulation metrics to own aquatic organisms having a view in order to making clear its relative merits and you may usefulness to possess bioaccumulation tests. We basic briefly define and you can talk about the bioaccumulation metrics, then implement a bulk harmony model to look at and you may measure the new matchmaking between them. I seek to bring novel wisdom towards fundamental process resulting in bioaccumulation and supply recommendations to have improving and you may shopping for research to own bioaccumulation assessments.
For the current analysis, we define and describe 5 common metrics for assessing bioaccumulation. Differences exist in the definitions and usage of these terms; however, the definitions given here are used to develop mathematical relationships in the next section. The octanol–water partition coefficient (KOW) is widely used as an indicator of hydrophobicity and thus the partitioning of a chemical from water into lipids and other organic phases such as protein 10 . The KOW is primarily controlled by the solubility of the substance in water, because the solubility of neutral, liquid nonpolar organic chemicals in octanol is relatively constant. A log KOW value of 5 is often used as a bioaccumulation assessment criterion; however, depending on the regulatory program, lower values are also used to categorize bioaccumulation potential. Whereas KOW gives a reasonable and conservative estimate of lipid–water partitioning for nonpolar hydrophobic substances 11 , it may not accurately simulate partitioning for more polar and ionogenic organic chemicals and other chemical classes such as organofluorines and silicones. Direct empirical measurement is essential in such cases.